Gastric Mucous and Gastritis


Gastric Mucous and Gastritis:

Structure of stomach wall:stomach wall

Stomach wall is formed by four layers of structures:

  • Outer serous layer:

Formed by peritoneum

  • Muscular layer:

Made up of three layers of smooth muscle fibers, namely inner oblique, middle circular and outer longitudinal layers.

  • Submucus layers:

Formed by areolar tissue, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and meissner nerve plexus.

  • Inner mucus layer:

Lined by mucus screting columnar epithelial cells. The gastric glands are situated in this layer. Under resting conditions the mucosa of stomach through into many folds. These folds are called rugae. The rugae disappear when stomach is distended after meals. Throughout mucosa small depressions called gastric pits are present. Glands of stomach open into these pits. Inner surface of mucus layer is covered by 2mm thick mucus.

Applied physiology:


Inflammation of gastric mucosa is called gastritis. It may be called acute or chronic. Acute gastritis is characterized by inflammation of superficial layers of mucus membrane and infiltration with leukocytes, mostly neutrophils.

Chronic gastritis involves inflammation of even the deeper layers and infiltration with more lymphocytes. It results in the atrophy of gastric mucosa with loss of chief cells and parietal cells of glands. Therefore, the secretion of gastric juice decreases.

Causes of acute gastritis:

treatment acute gastritis

  • Infection with bacterium helicobacter pylori
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol
  • Excess administration of aspirin and other no steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS )
  • Trauma by nasogastric tubes
  • Repeated exposure to radiation ( rare )

Causes of chronic gastritis:

chronic gastritis

  • Chronic infection with helicobacter pylori
  • Long term intake of excess alcohol
  • Long term use of NSAIDS


Features of gastritis are nonspecific. Common feature is abdominal upset or pain felt as a diffused burning sensation. It is often referred to epigastric pain. Other features are:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Anorexia ( loss of appetite )
  • Indigestion
  • Discomfort of feeling of fullness in the epigastria region
  • Belching ( process to relieve swallowed air that that is accumulated in the stomach )

Diagnosis of gastritis:

Acute gastritis is diagnosed by the doctor by performing various tests. Detailed questions are asked by the doctor to test your symptoms and disease progression taking full case and patient history.

  • complete blood test
  • breath tests to check the presence of helicobacter pylori bacterium
  • X-RAY to check the structural damage
  • Fecal stool test used to test the presence of blood in stool
  • Gastric tissue biopsy test
  • Endoscopy used to check the lining of gastric mucosa with the help of camera fitted.

Home remedies for treating gastritis:


There are home remedies which can be used to prevent and cure the diseases up to some extent by taking along with proper medication suggested by the patient which are effective and safe way of recovering. Some of the home remedies are:

Drinking eight to sixteen glasses of water everyday cleanses the stomach linning and helps preventing gastritis

Vitamin E supplementation helps preventing stomach inflammation.

Coconut oil and milk are the richest source of minerals and vitamins and most effective for the supplementation for gastritis.

Fennel is used for the relaxation of stomach linings and muscles. Chewing fennel seeds as such or drinking its juice aids relaxation of digestive tract.

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